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Know Bangladesh

Country Profile & Government

Facts and Figures
Official Name of the Country: People's Republic of Bangladesh
Conventional short form: Bangladesh
Bangladesh: Country Map
Independence Day: 26 March 1971
Victory Day: 16 December 1971 and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh.
Legal System: Based on English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age universal
Capital City: Dhaka
Nationality: Bangladeshi
Official Currency: Taka: (Currency Code: BDT) Denominations of currency in force: Paper currency: 500: 100: 50: 20: 10: 5: 2: Coins: 5: 2: 1
Fiscal Year: 1 July - 30 June
Languages: Bengali (official), English is widely spoken and used.
Religions: Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism and others.
Local Time: GMT + 6 hours
National Flag: bottle green with a large red disc slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disc represents the sun rising over Bangladesh and the blood shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lushness of the land of Bangladesh. Flag ratio 10:6
Official specification of the
National Flag:

bottle green and rectangular in size; flag ration 10:6 with a red circle in the middle. The red circle will have a radius of one-fifth of the length of the flag. Its centre will be placed on the intersecting point of the perpendicular drawn from the nine-twentieth part of the length of the flag, and the horizontal line drawn through the middle of its width.

the green base of the flag will be of Procion Brilliant Green H-2RS 50 parts per 1000. The red circular part will be of Procion Brilliant Orange H-2RS 60 parts per 1000.

depending on the size of the building the flag sizes will be 10´ x 6´; 5´ x 3´; 2½´ x 1½´; the size of the flag for car is 12½" x 7 ½" and the size of the table flag for bilateral conferences is 10" x 6".

National Flag

Flag Rules: Bangladesh Flag Rules. PDF
National Anthem: Amar Sonar Bangla (My Golden Bengal) First 10 lines
Military: Army, Navy and Air Force, Coastal Guard, Paramilitary Forces (BGB, Bangladesh Ansar, Village Defense Parties, Armed Police Battalions, National Cadet Corps)
National Icon & Monogram (Official):
National Fruit National Animal National Bird National Flower National Fish
Jack fruit
Shapla (Water Lily)
Hilsha (Elish)
Geographical Location: between 20º 34' and 26º 38' North latitude and between 88º 41' and 92° 41' East longitude; consists of flat fertile alluvial land.
Location & Boundary: North - India (W. Bengal and Meghalaya)
West - India (W. Bengal)
East - India (Tripura and Assam) and Myanmar
South - Bay of Bengal.
Land Area and Forms: Total: 147,570 sq km
Territorial Waters 22.22 km. Economic Zone- Up to
370.40 km. in the high seas, measured from the base line.
Land boundaries: Total: 4,246 km
Border countries: Myanmar 193 km, India 4,053 km
Coastline: 580 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nautical miles
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
contiguous zone: 18 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles
Resources (Natural): natural gas, coal, hard rock, lime stones, ceramic clay, glass sand timber and arable land
Climate: Sub-tropical. Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon climate. Rainy season of the southwest monsoon from June to September the rainfall is heavy and frequent ranges between 1,500 -- 2,500 mm/60--100 inches of rain a year. The cool season starts from November to February and hot season from March until early June. Humidity is high.
Rainfall: Monsoon - Average Rainfall: 1194 mm to 3454 mm
120-345 cm (47"- 136") (Average during the monsoon)
Average Temperature:

Winter (November - February)
Temperature: Maximum 29º C Minimum 09º C

Summer (April - September)
Temperature: Maximum 35º C Minimum 21º C

Humidity: Highest-98 % (July & August)
Economic scale
GDP: purchasing power parity - $336.7 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.12% (2013-14 est.)
GDP - per capita: Tk. 95,864 equivalent to US$ 1,235 (exchange rate US$ 1 equivalent
Tk.77.63 (provisional) 2014-2015
Sector-wise GDP composition: agriculture: 19.9%
industry: 20.6%
services: 59.5% (2006 est.)
Industrial production growth rate: 7.2% (2006 est.)
Inflation rate: 6.19% (October 2015)
Labor force (by occupation):
Agriculture: 48.4%
Service: 27.3%
Industry: 24.3%
Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit, vegetables, bananas, mangoes, coconut, beef, milk and poultry.
Industries: cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea, paper, newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, electric cables, pharmaceuticals and chemical, leather, fish and sugar.
Exports: $11.17 billion (2006 est.)
Exports commodities: garments, raw jute and jute goods, tea, leather, frozen fish and seafood, naphtha, furnace oil, urea, ceramic products.
Imports: $13.77 billion (2006 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $4.7 billion (2006 est.)
Transport and Communication
Sea Port: Chittagong and Mongla (Khulna)
River Port: Narayangonj; Barisal; Khulna; Chandpur; Bhairab Bazar; Sirajgonj;
Land Port: Benapole; Tamabil; Burimari; Hilli; Akharura; Darsana; Bhomra; Halurgha; Tamabil; Birol; Bibir Bazar; Sonamasjid and Teknaf
Railways: total: 2,768 km
broad gauge: 946 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roads: total: 239,226 km
paved: 22,726 km
unpaved: 216,500 km (2003)
Waterways: 8,372 km (includes 3,060 km main cargo routes) (2006)
Major Rivers: Padma, Megna, Jumuna, Surma: Brahamaputra: Dhaleswari: Rupsha: Posur: Sangu: Karnaphuli: Teesta: (Total 230 rivers including tributaries)
Airports: 10 (ten): 3 International and 7 domestic
Telephone: Land base: 1, 134,655 (2006)
Cell Phone: 183, 17,500 (December 2006)
Calling Country Code: 88
Internet users: 1.4 million (March 2007)
Internet TLD: .bd is the Internet country code top-level domain (cc TLD) for Bangladesh.
Population: 159,635,859 (November 2015) provisional
Sex Ratio: total population: 102.6 males per 100 female (2013)as per Sample
Vital Registration System (SVRS)
Structure (Age): 0-14 years: 33.8%
(male: 23,069,242; female: 21,995,457)
15-64 years: 62.8%
(male: 42,024,778; female: 40,873,077)
65 years and over: 3.4%
(male: 2,444,314; female: 2,069,816)
Population growth rate: 1.37% (2013)
Birth rate: 25.12 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 8.47 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 59.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
female: 58.05 deaths/1,000 live births;
male: 60.13 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: Sample Vital Registration System (SVRS 2013),
male: 68.8 years
female: 70.4 years
Literacy: age 15 and above can read and write: 43.1% of total population.
ratio: male: 53.9%: female: 31.8% (2003 est.)

In the Sample Vital Registration System (SVRS 2013), a person has been defined as literate if he/she is able to write a simple letter. The literacy rates obtained thus are presented below for the population irrespective of age. The overall rate comes out to be 49.3 percent. More males (51.0%) than females (47.6%) are literate. The literacy rate is significantly higher (59.6%) among the urban population than among the rural population (46.4%). Barisal division has the highest rate of literacy (60.3%), followed by Khulna division with a literacy rate of 51.5%. The lowest literacy rate (43.6%) prevails among the people of Sylhet division. At the divisional levels male-female differentials in literacy rate are of little significance.

Type of Government

Parliamentary Democracy


4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986. [Constitution]

Fundamental rights

As per Constitution: Part III
1. Laws inconsistent with fundamental rights to be void.
2. Equality before law.
3. Discrimination on grounds of religion, etc.
4. Equality of opportunity in public employment.
5. Prohibition of foreign titles, etc.
[No citizen shall, without the prior approval of the President, accept any title, honour, award or decoration from any foreign state.]
6. Right to protection of law.
7. Protection of right to life and personal liberty.
8. Safeguards as to arrest and detention.
9. Prohibition of forced labour.
10. Protection in respect of trial and punishment.
11. Freedom of movement.
12. Freedom of assembly.
13. Freedom of association.
14. Freedom of thought and conscience, and of speech.
15. Freedom of profession or occupation.
16. Freedom of religion.
17. Rights to property.
18. Protection of home and correspondence.
19. Enforcement of fundamental rights.
20. Modification of rights in respect of disciplinary.
21. Power to provide indemnity.
22. Saving for certain laws.
23. Inapplicability of certain articles.

Fundamental Principles of State Policy

As per Constitution: Part II
1. Fundamental principles.
2. Promotion of local Government institutions.
3. Participation of women in national life.
4. Democracy and human rights.
5. Principles of ownership.
6. Emancipation of peasants and workers.
7. Provision of basic necessities.
8. Rural development and agricultural revolution.
9. Free and compulsory education.
10. Public health and morality.
11. Equality of opportunity.
12. Work as a right and duty.
13. Duties of citizens and of public servants.
14. Separation of Judiciary from the executive.
15. National Culture.
16. National monuments, etc.
17. Promotion of international peace, security and solidarity.

Foreign Policy

Fundamental Foreign Policy (

1. The State shall base its international relations on the principles of respect for national sovereignty and equality, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, peaceful settlements of international disputes, and respect for international law and the principles enunciated in the United Nations Charter, and on the basis of those principles shall.

a) Strive for the renunciation of the use of force in international relations and for general and complete disarmament:

b) Uphold the right of every people freely to determine and build up its own social, economic and political system by ways and means of its own free choice and

c) Support oppressed peoples throughout the world waging a just struggle against imperialism colonialism or racialism.

2) The State shall endeavor to consolidate, preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic solidarity.

Organs of the State

The republic comprises three basic organs: the Legislature; the Executive and the Judicial

Legislative Branch

unicameral National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad); 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the constitutional amendment reserving 45 seats for women over and above the 300 regular parliament); Elected members serve for a period of five-year terms.

Executive Branch

President shall be the Chief of State; elected by members of National Parliament in accordance with law for a term of five-year from the date on which he enters upon his office. The President as head of state, takes precedence over all other persons in the state, and exercises the powers and performs the duties conferred and imposed on him by the constitution and by any other law. No person can hold office as President for more than two terms, whether or not the terms are consecutive. If a vacancy occurs in the office of President or if the President is unable to discharge the functions of his office on account of absence, illness or any other cause, the Speaker of the Parliament discharges those functions until a President is elected or until the President resumes the functions of his office.

The supreme command of the defense services vests in the President. No war can be declared and the Republic cannot participate in any war except with the assent of Parliament.

The President appoints as Prime Minister a member of Parliament who appears to him to command the support of the majority of the members of parliament. The appointment of Prime Minister and other Ministers and of the Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers is made by the President provided that not less than nine-tenths of their numbers are appointed from among members of parliament and not more than one-tenths of their number may be chosen from among persons qualified for election as members of parliament.

The President acts in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister. There shall be a cabinet for Bangladesh having the Prime Minister at its head and comprising also such other Ministers as the Prime Minister may from time to time designate. The executive power of the Republic is exercised by or on the authority of the Prime Minister.

The president's duties are normally ceremonial.

Head of Government: Prime Minister; the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president.

Cabinet: members are selected by the Prime Minister and appointed by the President.

Judicial Branch

The Supreme Court of Bangladesh is the highest judicial organ in the country and comprises the Appellate Division and the High Court Division, The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice and a number of other Judges. The Chief Justice and the Judges appointed to the Appellate Division sit only in that division and other Judges sit in the High Court Division. (The Chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)

Public Administration

Bangladesh has a unitary form of government. The President is the Head of State and the Prime Minister is the Head of Government. The Prime Minister is assisted by a Council of Ministers. The permanent office-in-charge of the Ministries / Divisions is designated as Secretary who belongs to the Civil Service.

For administrative purposes, the country is divided into eight divisions, each headed by a Divisional Commissioner. There are 64 districts under the 8 Divisions. The district is administered by a Deputy Commissioner who is assisted by Additional Deputy Commissioners. The District has a Zilla Parishad headed by a Chairman. The Districts are divided into UpZilla (Sub-district) headed by a Nirbahi (Executive) Officer. Currently, there are 489 UpZilla. The UpZilla again divided into Union. There are 4550 unions.

The head of the police administration in the country is the Inspector General of Police (IGP). The divisional police administration is headed by the Deputy Inspector General of Police (DIG) and the district police administration is headed by the Superintendent of Police (SP) and there is an Inspector of Police in each Thana. The Superintendents of Police (SP) and the Inspectors of Police work in close cooperation with the Deputy Commissioners and Thana Nirbahi Officers for maintenance of law and order under their respective jurisdictions. The Chief Police Officers in Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna and Rajshahi city are designated as Commissioner of Metropolitan Police.